Bateshwar Temple Complex, Morena – Symphony on Stones

by Apr 18, 2020India Heritage, Heritage & Architecture

There is a typical charm about ruins, old stones and buildings. The stones and ruins all seem to narrate a story – the stories of the past, their heydays and so much more. We have a special attachment to these old and ancient structures. We love to visit ancient forts, temples, mosques and ruins to look for chronicles of the past and their connection with the present. And this led us to our trip to the Bateshwar Temple complex in Morena, Madhya Pradesh. As many as 200 temples were lying in various stages of ruins. Those with a keen love for heritage and history will find the place fascinating, while others can simply marvel at the beauty of the place.

Morena was once known as the land of dacoits. The ravines on either side of Chambal River, known as the Chambal ki ghaati, are well known for having provided shelter for the infamous dacoits. But it was not the dacoits that interested us; Morena intrigued us with its lesser-known archaeological sites. On our last trip to Gwalior, we took a detour and visited a few archaeological sites of Morena – the Bateshwar Temple Complex, Padawali and Mitawali. The Bateshwar Temple is perhaps the grandest of them based on the sheer number of temples and is purely a symphony on stones.

Ruins of Batesara Group of Temples Morena

Bateshwar Temple Complex or Batesara Group of Temples

Bateshwar Temple complex is located in Morena district in Madhya Pradesh. Also known as Batesara or Batesvar, the temple complex is situated on a hilly range about 30 km from Gwalior city near the village of Padavali. The temples are located within the densely forested ravine of Chambal Valley is one of the most interesting and staggering archaeological sites that we have come across in India. It is believed that there are almost 200 temples dedicated to Lord Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti within an area of 25 acres. The name Bateshwar is believed to have been derived from Bhooteshwar, another name for Lord Shiva.

Peacock standing over a temple top in Batesara Temple

Parrots at temple complex, Morena

Bateshwar Temple – The Past & History

The temples are said to have been built during the 8th to 10th century AD by the Gurjara – Pratihara dynasty that ruled a large part of northern India from the mid-eighth century to the 11th century. The Pratihars considered themselves as Suryavanshis and are said to be the descendants of Lakshman from the epic Ramayana.

When I tried to look up for reference and details about these ancient temples and sites in Morena, I did not get much information about these archaeological sites. The earliest reference of these temples is found in the reports of Alexander Cummingham. He had visited this region in 1881-82 and mentioned about the temple complex and other temples in the vicinity.

He had mentioned the Bateshwar Temple complex as “a confused assemblage of more than 100 temples large and small, but mostly small, to the southeast of Paravali Padavali”.

At that time, the temple complex was in total ruins and only the main Bhuteshwar Temple and a few other temples were standing. Later, the reference of these temples is seen in the works of Dr. Rahman Ali in 1987 as he worked on the Pratihara art form in India. The Bateshwar Temple complex also finds mention in the monumental research work of R D Trivedi on the Pratihara Temples of Central India. But that is all we know about these temple complexes that lied in ruins across a slanted hill near Padavali.

Statues lying in the Bateshwar Temple Complex

Why were these temples of Bateshwar in such ruins? History does not give us a clear reason. There is no evidence of attack by invaders. The most accepted theory is that an earthquake in the 13th century had probably destroyed the temple complex. The site was brought under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in 1924 and since then the Bateshwar Temple complex has been conserved as a ruin.

It was only in 2005 when the restoration of the Bateshwar Temple complex was undertaken. It was at that time that archaeologist K K Muhammad came to know about Bateshwar and he decided to restore the temple complex. But before I go any further, let me tell you about Mr. Muhhamad.

Sculptures at bateshwar Temple Complex in Morena Madhya Pradesh

The Man Behind the Restoration of Bateshwar Temple (Batesara Temple)

K K Muhammad, a Keralite had been a leading archaeologist in the ASI. He had led an 8 member team to discover Akbar’s Ibadat Khana (hall of inter-religious discussions), a Christian chapel and a Mughal Bazaar at Fatehpur Sikri. Restoration of the Bateshwar Temple complex has been one of his most commendable works. He is fluent in Sanskrit and has been inspired by the Upanishads. When US President Barrack Obama and Michelle Obama visited India, he was the one to take them on a tour to the Humayun’s Tomb. He was also responsible for making Sanchi Stupa disabled-friendly.

So when K K Muhammad was made the Superintending Archaeologist of Bhopal circle ASI, he straightaway asked for the most challenging archaeological site of the region. His staff had pointed towards Bateshwar Temple Complex and with that, they also warned him to stay away from the place.

The reason behind the warning is found in Chambal ki ghaati, the deep ravines of Chambal Valley that is also the hiding place of several dreaded dacoits of the region. After all, the deep maze of these ravines and the stunted vegetation provided an ideal habitat for the dacoits. Perhaps, no work in these archaeological ruins was done because of the dread of these dacoits. The dacoits used the temple complex as their hideout.

Small temples in the Batesara Group of Temples Morena

The Dakus (dacoits) of Chambal

The history of the dacoits in this region goes back to as early as the thirteenth century CE. The dacoits came to limelight only during the British era. However, most of these dacoits were Robin Hood of sorts. They were mostly local outlaws known as Baghis, who were either oppressed by the higher castes, suffered social injustice or were deprived by the law. It was commonly believed that most of these dacoits used to loot the rich people and then distribute the wealth among the poor. Most notorious among these dacoits were Thakur Maan Singh, Putli Bai, Malkhan Singh, Dong-Batri brothers, Sultan Singh, Phoolan Devi and Mohar Singh. Even after Indian independence, the menace of the dacoits continued in the Chambal region. Many Bollywood movies have been made with the theme of Chambal dacoits.

Gradually, these dacoits either gave up their guns and surrendered or were killed by police encounters. Though organized gang is no longer there in the Chambal region, the gun culture is still prevalent in the region.

Coming back to the present, during 2004, the dacoits had an unwritten control over the Chambal region. Their leader was Nirbhay Singh Gujjar who was said to run a parallel government in about 40 villages. There were as many as 239 criminal charges against him for murder, robbery and kidnapping in his 30 years of dacoity career.

When K K Muhammad first saw the Bateshwar Temple Complex in 2004, the temple was in very bad shape. Stones were strewn all over and mixed. Most of the temples were broken down and it seemed like a giant puzzle of stones. Mr. Muhammad decided to decode this jigsaw puzzle and restore the Bateshwar Temple to its former glory.

The ruins of Bateshwar Temple (Batesara Group of Temples) in Morena is like solving a jugsaw puzzle

However, the job was not that easy. The first obstacle in solving the puzzle was the dacoits who had made the temple complex their hideout. So he decided to have a meeting with the dreaded dacoit Nirbhay Singh Gujjar. After several rounds of negotiations, he was able to convince the dacoit that these temples were built by his (Gujjar’s) ancestors. And as a true descendant, he must preserve and protect his heritage and show it to the world. Gujjar was somewhat convinced about the intentions of K K Muhammad and allowed him to start the restoration work. Gujjar asked the archaeologist to restore the front gate and the first 4 temples. The dacoits not only allowed the restoration work to start but also provided protection to the ASI workers and also helped them in the restoration work.

In the hindsight, it can also be said that these temples were preserved because of the presence of the dacoits. No one visited the area and no one carried away stones and the sculptures away, a common thing in most of the ancient monument sites in India.

K K Muhammad started working and with time the temples sprang up. After about 3 months, Nirbhay Singh Gujjar came to the site to see the progress of the work. He was totally surprised to see the place. By then, a gateway and a few temples were restored. He saw the work by the ASI workers, gave a wry smile and went away. It was as if he now gave full permission for the restoration work.

In the meanwhile, Indian Government who was on the pursuit of the Chambal dacoits shot dead Nirbhay Singh Gurjar. Thus ended the terror of dacoits in the region and the restoration work went on with full swing.

The next problem faced by K K Muhammad was the sand mafia of the region. There are several sand mines in the vicinity of the Bateshwar Temple Complex and mining activities started taking a toll on the temples and the restoration work. Despite requesting the government about the sand mafias, K K Muhammad did not receive any help. To stop mining the area, he involved RSS Chief K S Sudarshan. With Sudarshan’s connection, the government halted mining in the region temporarily and restoration worked continued at its pace. The government created a buffer zone of 750 metres around the site instead of the usual 200 metres. But illegal mining is always a threat to these ancient sites.

According to the ASI, the Bateshwar temple complex contains almost 200 temples. While many of them have been restored, about 80 are still lying in state of ruins awaiting restoration.

After the monumental effort of K K Muhammad and his team, the Bateshwar Complex seems to have regained its lost sheen. The giant jigsaw puzzle of Bateshwar is partially solved.

There is a video about the work done at Bateshwar Group of Temples where Mr. Muhammad tells about the work done by ASI, the challenges they faced and how they worked. Have a look at the video if it interests you.

Our visit to Bateshwar Temple Complex

We arrived at the Batesara Temple complex on an early morning. The sun was yet to show us his face, the villagers were gradually waking up from their slumber and the birds were chirping while waiting for the fresh rays of the morning sun. Winters in these areas can be as harsh as the summer. We had started at Gwalior quite early in the morning. Most of the time, there is a layer of fog all around and nothing could be seen properly. We were at Bateshwar by 8.00 am, but still, the fog was our constant companion.

First look of Bateshwar Temple at Morena

While there was a dream-like charm in the place because of the fog, Agni was not happy. Those who are into photography very well know the importance of light in taking pictures of monuments. Nevertheless, we entered into the Bateshwar Temple Complex.

I was transfixed as I entered the complex. The Bateshwar temple complex is a mesmerizing mix of small and big temples set among a scattering of ruins. There are stones, pillar, friezes and sculptures all around you lying on the ground waiting to be restored to their former glory. And those already restored stood proudly showing their magnificence. The most striking statue that caught our eyes was the Hanuman Statue colored in red vermillion. The Hanuman statue is worshipped by the locals of the area.

Hanuman statue at Batesara Group of Temples Morena

The Shikhara of one temple at Bateshwar Morena

Majority of the temples in the complex fall under the Pancharatha style, with 5 vertical offsets on each side. The earliest temples have plain square roofs known as mandapikas while the later evolved ones have Shikharas (tower). Most of the temples have a similar style and arrangement. The doors of the temples had various sculptures. As I started looking at them intently, I could identify Navgrahas (the nine planets), Dashavatars (ten incarnations of Vishnu), Ashta Dikpalas (the eight directions), serpent and a few others.

I saw a few of the temples depict a figure of Lakulisha holding a rod. It might have been possible that the region was under the influence of the Lakulisha sect during the 8th – 9th century CE. In the majority of the temples, I also saw figures of Nandi facing the temple. These temples were no doubt dedicated to Lord Shiva. There are temples dedicated to Vishnu as well as I could see the presence of Garuda in some of the temples.

Statue of Lakulisa - Batesara Temple Morena

Bhooteshwar Shrine Morena

The main temple of the complex, also the biggest one is the Bhutnath shrine. This is the only temple where the locals come to offer prayers. It is a complex of eleven temples – one main temple and ten subsidiary shrines. There is also a small water body in the middle of the temple complex where we saw the priest having a bath in that cold weather!

It was, in fact, a fascinating moment for us. We were overwhelmed to see so many temples packed in such a small area. Sometimes there is barely a few centimetres gap between the temples. As we went around the complex, we went to the small hut of the caretaker on the other side of the complex. It was there where we saw something very beautiful.

It was there where we saw peacocks. The peacocks in large number had come from the nearby jungle to have food. The caretaker of the temple would give keep some food and the peacocks, parrots and other birds would come to have them. Well, peacocks are quite common in these areas. But it is not in cities. We were quite excited to see the peacocks while Panditji of the temple kept smiling seeing our excitement. After all, we were at Morena! The word Morena is derived from the words ‘Mor’, meaning peacock and ‘Raina’, meaning living place. And there was an abundance of peacocks there.

Peacock at Bateshwar Temple Morena

We took photographs of the peacocks, parrots, temples and then started for the next monuments in the area. We had 3 more places to visit.

K K Muhammad considers Bateshwar Temple as his pilgrimage. Indeed, he and his team had painstakingly restored the lost Indian heritage from a mound of rubbles. By 2012, almost a hundred temples were restored by the team. The 1300-year-old temple complex had got a new lease of life. With so many temples together, the Bateshwar Temple Complex can easily be called the largest temple group in India. But the entire work is not done yet. Perhaps it needs another round of restoration to overcome the ravages of time.

I have always been vocal about criticizing the ASI and the State Archaeological Departments about conservation of a few archaeological sites. We have seen the ancient temples at Garhpanchkot in West Bengal being restored in such a careless manner. The old terracotta works were just being painted over. But Bateshwar Temple Complex has proved what amazing work the ASI is capable of providing the right person is present and there is an intention and desire to make a difference.

Restoration of Bateshwar Temple Complex Morena

Bateshwar Temple (Batesara Temple Complex) Quick Facts

  • How to reach Bateshwar Temple Complex?

The Bateshwar Temple Complex is located near Padavali village in Morena district. The place is about 35 km from Gwalior and 30 km from Morena Railway Station.

It is best to hire a car from Gwalior and visit the Bateshwar Temple Complex, Padavali and Mitawali together. If time permits you can visit Kakanmath as well.

Please do not confuse this Bateshwar Temple with the one on the banks of Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

  • Where to stay?

It would be better to keep Gwalior as your base and then explore the archaeological sites of Morena. We had stayed at Gwalior and then explored these places.

Alternatively, you can also stay at Morena. But we would recommend you staying at Gwalior itself.

  • Our Itinerary

We started from Gwalior early in the morning and wanted to visit Bateshwar Temple, Padavali and the Chausath Yogini Temple at Mitawali. We had hired a car for this trip from Gwalior. We wanted to explore these places and return to Gwalior on the same day to catch our train to Khajuraho in the evening.

We visited the Bateshwar Temple Complex at first, as we were told that we can see a large number of peacocks there in the morning. That we saw and got quite happy! Later we visited the Garh Padavali and then the Chausath Yogini Temple at Mitawali.

On the recommendation of our driver, we went to visit Kakanmath Temple as well, which according to us was the highlight of our trip. After visiting these sites, we came back to Gwalior and then caught our train to Khajuraho.


We heard that plans are further made to commence the next phase of reconstruction and restoration of this project. We plan to visit Bateshwar Temple Complex and Morena again and would love to see the jigsaw puzzle completely solved. Just imagine, how grand the place would look!

Few more Pictures of Bateshwar Temple (Batesara Temple Complex)

Sculpture of Ganesha at Bateshwar Temple Complex Morena

Peacock at Batesara Group of Temples Morena

Bhooteshwar Shrine

Sculpture at Batesara Temple complex Morena

Nandi shrine at Bateshwar Temple Morena

Bateshwar Temple ruins at Morena

Batesara Temple Morena ruins

Flight of peacock

Sculptures at the temple

Group of temples at Bateshwar Morena

Ruins of Bateshwar Temple Complex in Morena

What do you think about Bateshwar Group of Temples? Please let us know your thoughts by commenting below.

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Batesara Temple Morena, Madhya Pradesh Tourism

Bateshwar Temple Morena Madhya Pradesh

 

 

Agni & Amrita

Agni & Amrita

Travel Experts

We are Agni and Amrita, the story-telling team behind Tale of 2 Backpackers and partners in crime in travel and (mis)adventures of life. We have been travelling together for more than a decade looking for immersive experiences while enjoying the little beauties of life. We are intrigued by heritage, culture, festivals and people and that is reflected in our travel. And yes, we love the Himalayas too.

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46 Comments

  1. Great place to visit at least once . Me too have been there in 2016 and my story was published by a leading Hindi News paper “Dainik Jagran”. I am amazed , I could not see any picture in your post from Mitawali Chaunsath Yogini Mandir which is built in the shape of parliament .

    Reply
    • I am writing a separate article on Mitawali. Thats why. Thanks for stopping by.

      Reply
  2. I have had the opportunity of visiting Bateshwar temple and had taken a day off during an official tour to Gwalior to visit. This was therefore quite nostalgic. However did not know so much history of the place ans so it was some great learning too.

    Reply
    • Thank you Subhashish! We did not know either until we visited.

      Reply
  3. This kind of reminds me of the Kimchi Temple complex near Udhampur in J&K. This is the first detailed guide i read about any temple complex, its history and about the restoration. Kudos to you guys for documenting this, and sharing it with others.Though am not that much into religious sites and all, but found this post quite informative. And your photos, need a special mention. Loved them

    Reply
    • Thanks Arnav! We do not visit these sites for religious pursuits (not religious at all), but purely for their historical and architectural importance.

      Reply
  4. These groups of temples are truly amazing! India is a country with many wonders and tons of stories. The low clouds (or fogs) gives a mystical appeal in the whole view.

    Reply
    • Thank you so much!

      Reply
  5. It is a magnificent ruin of temple with a fantastic history. The sculptures are beautiful and so detailed. Fog adds mystery and a fairy-tale atmosphere. I would like to see this place someday.

    Reply
    • Thank you, Agnes!

      Reply
  6. Wow this place looks amazing. I haven’t visited India yet but seeing places like this, really makes me want to get there soon. I love to visit temple complexes and this one looks like it has been restored very well and the fog you had that day does make it look very mystical. Hopefully one day I will get to see this in person too.

    Reply
    • Thank you Clare! I hope you visit India soon.

      Reply
  7. I love your posts on old buildings, stones and ruins. I have always heard Morena as the land of dacoits and those ravines on either side of Chambal River, as Chambal ki ghaati and therefore afraid to go till date. Never knew that this Chambal ki Ghati has some archaeological sites too. The Bateshwar Temple Complex, Padawali and Mitawali looks wonderful. And you have taken wonderful photos of them with little fog which makes it very dreamy.

    Reply
    • Thank you Yukti! Morena was a revelation for us. We had not imagined that we would find such wonders there.

      Reply
  8. How had I never heard of this before?! Considering the age, it’s so well kept! We visited siem reap years ago and while it was beautiful it was filled with tourists. Would live to see this!

    Reply
    • Thanks Chloe! This place had been neglected for long before the restoration work started. Infact, this place was infamous for dreaded dacoits and so not visited by many people.

      Reply
  9. This is so cool! I could spend months here! Thank you for bringing the Batesara Temple Complex to my attention. I would love to see the Dakus of Chambal and meet K K Muhammad. The stories I’m sure he could tell have to be incredible!

    Reply
    • Thanks Joe! I dont think you could see the Dakus or dacoits anymore. The police have either captured them or killed them in encounters!

      Reply
  10. Hello! This is a trip that definitely impressed me! The ancient architecture is amazing! I want to be there!

    Reply
    • Thank you, John!

      Reply
  11. I am delighted with this place and your photos. I want to see it. It is another architectural gem in India. This country never ceases to delight me, and although I have been three times, there are still so many places to discover. Bateshwar temple has such a rich history. The ornamentation of the sculptures is delightful. Amazing post!

    Reply
    • Thanks Agnes! Yes, it is another hidden gem in India!

      Reply
  12. You think exactly the way I tend to when visiting these types of sites. What are the many stories behind them? This post taught me about a piece of history that I was completely ignorant of – and in such detail! Thank you.

    Reply
    • Thank you Stephanie! There are always so many stories behind the ruins.

      Reply
  13. I have heard and seen many pictures in social media about bateshwara temples of Morena. Apart from architectures, I didn’t know it is restored in Past few years only. The commendable efforts by ASI officer K K Muhammad is appreciable and now we are able to visit it. As you said due to fog Agny was not happy but still photographs are breathtakingly beautiful and you could see many peacocks too. Love reading the post especially History and restoration work!

    Reply
    • Thanks Mayuri! The place was totally foggy when we visited. It was good that the photographs came well! 🙂

      Reply
  14. Now I am craving to get to this place. Morena indeed, is a hidden wonder. The intricate stone work have so many stories to share. Loved reading about the Dakus…chambal ghatti and its tale cannot be complete without that. It is so heartening to see that ASI has been doing some good work here. I am yet to visit that side of India but when I do, will be referring to your guide!

    Reply
    • Thank you, Ami! We were also pleasantly surprised to see the work done by ASI here. Usually I complain a lot about them!

      Reply
  15. The sculptures are intriguing and yes I do agree that architectural photography is best reflected in lights. But trust me, that foggy look really added a treasure hunt kinda look there. 😇 And definitely the place itself is no less than a national treasure itself. And the dacoits’ touch added a bit more excitement to my imagination of a treasure there.

    Reply
    • And the peacocks there, I just became Mukul seeing those. Now I get it. Those peacocks are the reason for my vicarious treasure hunt. 🙂

      Reply
      • Yes, Mukul! How can I even forget?

        Reply
    • Thank you Jayashree! Treasure was something that I had in my mind. Infact, the locals were saying that the dacoits used to share their loot in the temple complex. Maybe, some of them hid a part there and you can have a feel of hidden treasure! 🙂

      Reply
  16. The fog makes it all look so mysterious. I kind of like it for photographs, although I can see why you would want sun. Those peacocks were certainly a great surprise for you. I love them. Restoring such a large place would be a mighty undertaking for sure. How many temples do you think there are in India?

    Reply
    • Thanks Kathleen! The fog definitely made the place look dreamy. Anyways, we were happy with whatever we got! 🙂

      Reply
  17. I love explored temples and ancient sites in India. Bateshwar Temple looks like a fine example and glad Mr Muhammad started restoration, what a huge undertaking that must have been. The red stone of the Hanuman Statue does stand out. Some wonderful information on the history, where to stay and how to get there.

    Reply
    • Thank you Vanessa. Hope you liked exploring the ancient sites of India.

      Reply
  18. Wow Amrita, another fascinating temple complex in India that I hadn’t heard of previously! The Bateshwar Temple looks incredible and I especially love the photos with the peacock and the Indian ringneck parrots. Thank you for sharing the history as well as your tips and itinerary, very useful 🙂

    Reply
    • Thanks Freya! We love to visit these ancient and old temples, especially where we can roam around and take photographs at our will.

      Reply
      • Tbh I have very little infact negligible knowledge on MP historical sites . And , I got to read about Bateshwar temple , Morena for the first time through your detailed post only.. The pictures and the details of the temples are absolutely amazing. Now, I see that I have to make a detailed visit to MP very soon .

        Reply
        • Thank you Debjani! We could not get enough of MP. Its such an amazing place, especially Morena!

          Reply
  19. So many temples at Bateshwar temple complex. It must have been quite the project to restore. Thankfully it was. So much history in one spot.

    Reply
    • Thanks Kelly! Yes, the place was full of history. And we were totally overwhelmed.

      Reply
  20. What a mysterious place. I enjoyed reading about your visit and seeing the beautiful photos. It was also interesting to learn about the dacoits.

    Reply
    • Thank you Jenna!

      Reply
  21. Visiting old forts and ruins certainly does give you a view into the past. I am sure that Bateshwar Temple is a great spot for history amidst the 200 temples in the Chambal Valley. Even though they may have been largely destroyed by earthquake, the parts that have been restored look interesting. And quite mysterious when shot with the moody for in the background. That vermillion statue sure does stand out in the site.

    Reply
    • Thanks Linda! Bateshwar was really an interesting place.

      Reply

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